KEI analysis on the WHO INB zero draft

In February 2023, Knowledge Ecology International (KEI) circulated two memos providing analysis on the WHO INB. pandemic CA+ zero draft text. The first memo provides KEI’s take on Article 10 of the zero draft. The memo elaborates on thee provisions for the WHO Pathogen Access and Benefit-Sharing System (the PABS), reviews the experience with the WHO PIP Framework for influenza, which is the model for PABS, and also presents a proposal for an open source dividend, which can be either a complement or a substitute for benefit sharing. The link for this memo is:

The second memo provides KEI’s analysis on several articles in the WHO pandemic CA+ zero draft text dealing with intellectual property, licensing, government funded R&D and transparency, from Article 6, 7, 8, 9 and 19, plus a proposal for pooling rights in inventions, data, biologic resources and know-how. The link for this memo is:


Thiru Balasubramaniam is the Geneva Representative of Knowledge Ecology International. Prior to his post as KEI’s Geneva Representative, Mr. Balasubramaniam worked at Health Action International in Colombo and at the World Health Organization in Geneva as a technical officer in the Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy dealing with access to medicines and intellectual property. He began his career with CPTech working on issues related to health care and intellectual property. Mr. Balasubramaniam holds a B.A. in Economics and a Minor in European History from the University of Pennsylvania.