Timeline of U.S. Army & Sanofi Zika Vaccine Collaboration

For quite a more detail on this issue, see

2016 January: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) begins development of a vaccine candidate for Zika virus, based on its work in developing vaccines “against other flaviviruses, such as yellow fever, dengue and Japanese encephalitis.”

2016: Objection to exclusive license to AestasRx Inc.

Other KEI comments on NIH licenses are found here:

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Jamie Love
Date: Fri, Apr 8, 2016 at 3:10 PM
Subject: Objection to exclusive license to AestasRx Inc.

Susan Ano, Ph.D., NINDS Technology Transfer,
31 Center Drive, Suite 8A52, MSC2540
Bethesda, MD 20892;
Telephone: (301) 435-5515;

Dear Dr. Ano,

History of 28 USC 1498, as reported in Zoltek Corp v US (2009-5135)

This March 14, 2012 opinion by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit provides a discussion of some elements of the history of 28 USC 1498, beginning in 1894, through changes in the law in 1910, 1918, 1942, 1949, and 1960.

United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

ZOLTEK CORPORATION, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. UNITED STATES, Defendant, v. LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION Defendant-Appellant.
Appeal from the United States Court of Federal Claims in case no. 96-CV-166, Judge Edward J. Damich.
Decided: March 14, 2012

2012-2013 NIH March-in Request for Ritonavir

Pages on the 2012-2013 NIH Request

15 frequently asked questions about the 2012-2013 ritonavir March-In petition

See also:

15 frequently asked questions about the 2012 ritonavir March-In petition

Q1. What is the Bayh-Dole Act?

The Bayh-Dole Act (or University and Small Business Patent Procedures Act) was originally enacted in 1980 as Public Law 96-517, and was amended in 1984 by Public Law 98-620. Among other things, the Bayh-Dole Act was designed to facilitate the patenting of U.S. government funded inventions by universities, other non-profit entities and businesses, and also:

US government rights in patents: 2010-2012


Using the USPTO web page for searching the full text of patents, queries were run to find out how many patents have US government rights, or are owned by the United States of America. The searches reported here are limited to patents that have a U.S. inventor, and except for the first one, are limited to patents with the Specification field including the list of a life threatening medical disease or condition. The following is an example set of queries:

DHHS Secretary Donna Shalala to Rep Jan Schakowsky in 2000, on WHO access to fed funded patent rights

In 2000, President Clinton asked Donna Shalala, then the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), to write to Representative Jan Schakowsky. Schakowky had asked President Clinton to provide the World Health Organization with royalty free rights to health care products, for which the United States holds rights.

Schakowsky was pressing President Clinton to share its rights, under 35 USC 202(c)(4) -- a federal statute that reserves certain rights in patents where the federal government provided funding for the invention.

KEI comments to the WIPO patent committee discussion of patent quality

During today's discussion at the WIPO Standing Committee on the Law of Patents (SCP) on patent quality KEI make four points in its intervention.

1. WIPO should consider gathering information on the costs of litigation to challenge the validity of patents.

2. WIPO should consider creating a database to share information on the cases where litigation has resulted findings that patent claims as invalid.

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